definition of mollusca

This animal is a genus of the mollusca tribe, which glitters in the night on the crest of every bursting wave. Some shell "currencies" were not used for commercial transactions, but mainly as social status displays at important occasions, such as weddings. About 42% of recorded extinctions since the year 1500 are of molluscs, consisting almost entirely of nonmarine species. Definition of Mollusca in the Fine Dictionary. [15] In bivalves, the foot is adapted for burrowing into the sediment;[32] in cephalopods it is used for jet propulsion,[32] and the tentacles and arms are derived from the foot. Another tropical species, Octopus apollyon, causes severe inflammation that can last for over a month even if treated correctly,[99] and the bite of Octopus rubescens can cause necrosis that lasts longer than one month if untreated, and headaches and weakness persisting for up to a week even if treated. [58] However, other scientists are not convinced these Early Cambrian fossils show clear signs of the torsion that identifies modern gastropods twists the internal organs so the anus lies above the head. While metamorphosis is the usual state in molluscs, the cephalopods differ in exhibiting direct development: the hatchling is a 'miniaturized' form of the adult. The Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. Carnivorous molluscs usually have simpler digestive systems. The main body cavity is a hemocoel through which blood circulates; as such, their circulatory systems are mainly open. ; Díaz Agras, G.J. Most mollusks have a hard shell that protects the body. [76], The molluscan shell appears to have originated from a mucus coating, which eventually stiffened into a cuticle. Trigo, J.E. [31], The underside consists of a muscular foot, which has adapted to different purposes in different classes. Molluscs have been and still are an important food source for anatomically modern humans. Their shells have also been used as a form of currency in some preindustrial societies. [12], The mantle edge secretes a shell (secondarily absent in a number of taxonomic groups, such as the nudibranchs[12]) that consists of mainly chitin and conchiolin (a protein hardened with calcium carbonate),[15][27] except the outermost layer, which in almost all cases is all conchiolin (see periostracum). [44] Although most helcionellid fossils are only a few millimeters long, specimens a few centimeters long have also been found, most with more limpet-like shapes. A possible "family tree" of molluscs (2007). They divide the mantle cavity so water enters near the bottom and exits near the top. [75] The diagram on the right summarizes a phylogeny presented in 2007 without the annelid worms. 10, 1758) I. vi. 31 (3–4): 144..), Opinions vary about the number of classes of molluscs; for example, the table below shows seven living classes,[18] and two extinct ones. Information and translations of molluscs in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on … [21], Molluscs have more varied forms than any other animal phylum. [11] About 80% of all known mollusc species are gastropods. Most mollusk species grow a hard shell for … Beating cilia (tiny "hairs") drive the mucus towards the stomach, so the mucus forms a long string called a "food string". mollusk. [95] Potamopyrgus antipodarum is used by some water treatment plants to test for estrogen-mimicking pollutants from industrial agriculture. Bivalvia, formerly called Lamellibranchiata, or Conchifera). However, in 2004 the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species included nearly 2,000 endangered nonmarine molluscs. Mollusk, any soft-bodied invertebrate of the phylum Mollusca, usually wholly or partly enclosed in a calcium carbonate shell secreted by a soft mantle covering the body. Generally, the gills are rather like feathers in shape, although some species have gills with filaments on only one side. Journal of Molluscan Studies. Some molluscs sting or bite, but deaths from mollusc venoms total less than 10% of those from jellyfish stings. The underside of the animal consists of a single muscular "foot". [15], The particles are sorted by yet another group of cilia, which send the smaller particles, mainly minerals, to the prostyle so eventually they are excreted, while the larger ones, mainly food, are sent to the stomach's cecum (a pouch with no other exit) to be digested. [30], The shell consists of three layers: the outer layer (the periostracum) made of organic matter, a middle layer made of columnar calcite, and an inner layer consisting of laminated calcite, often nacreous. Along with the insects and vertebrates, it is one of the most diverse groups in the animal kingdom, with nearly 100,000 (possibly A risk of food poisoning exists from toxins that can accumulate in certain molluscs under specific conditions, however, and because of this, many countries have regulations to reduce this risk. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized. The bivalves have only three pairs of ganglia— cerebral, pedal, and visceral— with the visceral as the largest and most important of the three functioning as the principal center of "thinking". Example sentences containing Mollusca [50] In fact, some groups traditionally classified as molluscs may have to be redefined as distinct but related.[74]. [15] The atria of the heart also function as part of the excretory system by filtering waste products out of the blood and dumping it into the coelom as urine. [62] All cephalopods with external shells except the nautiloids became extinct by the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago. Good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods (e.g., Aldanella), cephalopods (e.g., Plectronoceras, ?Nectocaris) and bivalves (Pojetaia, Fordilla) towards the middle of the Cambrian period, c. 500 million years ago, though arguably each of these may belong only to the stem lineage of their respective classes. 75, 253–295 (2000). They are the largest marine phylum, with about 85,000 living species, 23% of all named marine organisms. The simplest type of molluscan reproductive system relies on external fertilization, but more complex variations occur. ", "Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships", "New data on Kimberella, the Vendian mollusc-like organism (White Sea region, Russia): palaeoecological and evolutionary implications", "Deep molluscan phylogeny: synthesis of palaeontological and neontological data", 10.1666/0022-3360(2002)076<0287:LECSSF>2.0.CO;2, "Shell microstructures in Early Cambrian molluscs", "A Broad Brush History of the Cephalopoda", 10.1666/0022-3360(2001)075<1119:BSDTC>2.0.CO;2, "Phylogenetic analysis of 73 060 taxa corroborates major eukaryotic groups", "The cell lineage of the polyplacophoran, Chaetopleura apiculata: variation in the spiralian program and implications for molluscan evolution", "Investigation of molluscan phylogeny on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences", "Phylogenetic support values are not necessarily informative: the case of the Serialia hypothesis (a mollusk phylogeny)", "A molecular palaeobiological hypothesis for the origin of aplacophoran molluscs and their derivation from chiton-like ancestors", "China catches almost 11 m tonnes of molluscs in 2005", "Importing fishery products or bivalve molluscs", 10.2983/0730-8000(2006)25[233:DOPOAO]2.0.CO;2, "Doctor snail—Lethal to fish and sometimes even humans, cone snail venom contains a pharmacopoeia of precision drugs", "Cone Shell Mollusc Poisoning, with Report of a Fatal Case", "Venomous mollusks: The risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: Conidae) in Brazil", "The Carter Center Schistosomiasis Control Program", Researchers complete mollusk evolutionary tree; 26 October 2011, Hardy's Internet Guide to Marine Gastropods, Archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms,, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Snails, yes; slugs, mostly yes (internal vestigial), Octopuses, no; cuttlefish, nautilus, squid, yes, ancient lineage of molluscs with cap-like shells, seabed 1,800–7,000 metres (5,900–23,000 ft); one species 200 metres (660 ft). "Molluscan diets". Definition of mollusk. In gastropods, it secretes mucus as a lubricant to aid movement. [101][103], Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever), a disease caused by the fluke worm Schistosoma, is "second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease in tropical countries. [29] Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Most material © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC. The generalized mollusc has two paired nerve cords, or three in bivalves. [107], "Mollusk" redirects here. Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis, or snail fever) is transmitted to humans by water snail hosts, and affects about 200 million people. One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, including the classes Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, PteropodaScaphopoda, and Lamellibranchiata, or Conchifera. However, Plectronoceras and other early cephalopods crept along the seafloor instead of swimming, as their shells contained a "ballast" of stony deposits on what is thought to be the underside, and had stripes and blotches on what is thought to be the upper surface. Kimberella, from about 555 million years ago, has been described by some paleontologists as "mollusc-like",[47][48] but others are unwilling to go further than "probable bilaterian",[49][50] if that. Biol. [79], However, an analysis in 2009 using both morphological and molecular phylogenetics comparisons concluded the molluscs are not monophyletic; in particular, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are both separate, monophyletic lineages unrelated to the remaining molluscan classes; the traditional phylum Mollusca is polyphyletic, and it can only be made monophyletic if scaphopods and bivalves are excluded. Some feed on microscopic, filamentous algae, often using their radula as a 'rake' to comb up filaments from the sea floor. A phylogenetic study suggests the Polyplacophora form a clade with a monophyletic Aplacophora. noun An invertebrate of a large phylum which includes snails, slugs, mussels, and octopuses. They include snails, slugs and other gastropods; clams and other bivalves; squids and other cephalopods; and other lesser-known but similarly distinctive subgroups. Or do you just have an interest in foreign languages? [65][66][67][68] "Modern-looking" bivalves appeared in the Ordovician period, 488 to 443 million years ago. n. (Animals) any invertebrate of the phylum Mollusca, having a soft unsegmented body and often a shell, secreted by a fold of skin (the mantle). Modified entries © 2019 by Penguin Random House … [76] For example, it is uncertain whether the ancestral mollusc was metameric (composed of repeating units)—if it was, that would suggest an origin from an annelid-like worm. "[104] The parasite has 13 known species, two of which infect humans. Molluscs are found in nearly all freshwater and marine environments, and some are found also on land. [35] The development of molluscs is of particular interest in the field of ocean acidification as environmental stress is recognized to affect the settlement, metamorphosis, and survival of larvae. [100], All species of cone snails are venomous and can sting painfully when handled, although many species are too small to pose much of a risk to humans, and only a few fatalities have been reliably reported. Mollusc species can also represent hazards or pests for human activities. 1. Many taxa remain poorly studied.[5]. Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. Mollusca (n.) "division of invertebrate animals with soft, unsegmented bodies, no jointed legs, and commonly covered by hard shells," 1797, from Modern Latin mollusca, chosen by Linnaeus as the name of an invertebrate order (1758), from neuter plural of Latin molluscus "thin-shelled," from mollis "soft," from PIE root *mel-(1) "soft." Octopuses, oysters, snails, and squid are just a … [15], As the head has largely disappeared in bivalves, the mouth has been equipped with labial palps (two on each side of the mouth) to collect the detritus from its mucus. [87], Other luxury and high-status products were made from molluscs. Fig. The radula primarily functions to scrape bacteria and algae off rocks, and is associated with the odontophore, a cartilaginous supporting organ. Other characteristics that commonly appear in textbooks have significant exceptions: Estimates of accepted described living species of molluscs vary from 50,000 to a maximum of 120,000 species. molluscum [mŏ-lus´kum] 1. any of various skin diseases marked by the formation of soft rounded cutaneous tumors. The anus, a pair of osphradia (chemical sensors) in the incoming "lane", the hindmost pair of gills and the exit openings of the nephridia ("kidneys") and gonads (reproductive organs) are in the mantle cavity. “Capital” vs. “Capitol”: Do You Know Where You’re Going? Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? Definition of Molluscs: Phylum Mollusca is a group of invertebrates which has fascinated man from the dawn of civili­zation. Definition of Mollusca. Most have a well-developed head, which may bear sensory tentacles; in some, like the clam, the head is very reduced. Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners. Molluscs are some of the most successful organisms on Earth, and after arthropods they are the most diverse group of invertebrates. Mollusks have soft bodies, and their bodies are not divided into rings like the segmented worms called annelids . Their venom is a complex mixture of toxins, some fast-acting and others slower but deadlier. [50] In one particular branch of the family tree, the shell of conchiferans is thought to have evolved from the spicules (small spines) of aplacophorans; but this is difficult to reconcile with the embryological origins of spicules. Mollusca (prop. [14](pp300–343)[59][60], Volborthella, some fossils of which predate 530 million years ago, was long thought to be a cephalopod, but discoveries of more detailed fossils showed its shell was not secreted, but built from grains of the mineral silicon dioxide (silica), and it was not divided into a series of compartments by septa as those of fossil shelled cephalopods and the living Nautilus are. The majority of species still live in the oceans, from the seashores to the abyssal zone, but some form a significant part of the freshwater fauna and the terrestrial ecosystems. The brain, in species that have one, encircles the esophagus. [12], The cephalic molluscs have two pairs of main nerve cords organized around a number of paired ganglia, the visceral cords serving the internal organs and the pedal ones serving the foot. [33], Most molluscs' circulatory systems are mainly open. Pronunciation of Mollusca and its etymology. [105], Some species of molluscs, particularly certain snails and slugs, can be serious crop pests,[106] and when introduced into new environments, can unbalance local ecosystems. Molluscus was itself an adaptation of Aristotle's τὰ μαλάκια ta malákia (the soft ones; < μαλακός malakós "soft"), which he applied inter alia to cuttlefish. A pair of nephridia ("little kidneys") to the rear of and connected to the coelom extracts any re-usable materials from the urine and dumps additional waste products into it, and then ejects it via tubes that discharge into the mantle cavity.[15]. The nephridia extract the gametes from the coelom and emit them into the mantle cavity. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. [14](pFront endpaper) About 200,000 living species in total are estimated,[1][20] and 70,000 fossil species,[13] although the total number of mollusc species ever to have existed, whether or not preserved, must be many times greater than the number alive today. They have an open circulatory system and kidney-like organs for excretion. Mollusk definition, any invertebrate of the phylum Mollusca, typically having a calcareous shell of one, two, or more pieces that wholly or partly enclose the soft, unsegmented body, including the chitons, snails, bivalves, squids, and octopuses. However, the evolutionary history both of molluscs' emergence from the ancestral Lophotrochozoa and of their diversification into the well-known living and fossil forms are still subjects of vigorous debate among scientists. ii. They have a soft unsegmented body and live in aquatic or damp habitats, and most kinds have an external calcareous shell. The pedal ganglia, which control the foot, are below the esophagus and their commissure and connectives to the cerebral and pleural ganglia surround the esophagus in a circumesophageal nerve ring or nerve collar.[15]. Learn more. Most mollusks, including snails, … Because the relationships between the members of the family tree are uncertain, it is difficult to identify the features inherited from the last common ancestor of all molluscs. All produce eggs, from which may emerge trochophore larvae, more complex veliger larvae, or miniature adults. [19] Molluscs are second only to arthropods in numbers of living animal species[16] — far behind the arthropods' 1,113,000 but well ahead of chordates' 52,000. They constitute the phylum Mollusca, a major group of animals known to have as many as 100,000 living species and more than 50,000 fossil forms. Does “Bimonthly” Mean Twice A Month Or Every Two Months? (figuratively) A weak-willed person. Image courtesy of Jan Delsing, Wikimedia Commons The phylum Mollusca is the second-largest animal phylum, with over 100,000 species. Some molluscs use internal fertilization and/or are hermaphrodites, functioning as both sexes; both of these methods require more complex reproductive systems. [12] The following are present in all modern molluscs:[13][15]. [26][14](p291–292) Two of the commonly recognized "classes" are known only from fossils.[16]. While most mollusc shells are composed mainly of aragonite, those gastropods that lay eggs with a hard shell use calcite (sometimes with traces of aragonite) to construct the eggshells. There is also a shortage of specialists who can identify all the animals in any one area to species. (məˈlʌskə) noun. The marine … Many mollusks live…. Glory-of-the-sea snail (Conus gloriamaris) is prized by collectors for its ornate shell. Most molluscs have eyes, and all have sensors to detect chemicals, vibrations, and touch. Most molluscs have muscular mouths with radulae, "tongues", bearing many rows of chitinous teeth, which are replaced from the rear as they wear out. The depiction is visually rather similar to modern monoplacophorans. The shell is secreted by a mantle covering the upper surface. For those grazing, two feeding strategies are predominant. [57], Some analyses of helcionellids concluded these were the earliest gastropods. The molluscs include many familiar animals, including clams, snails, slugs, and squid, as well as some less familiar animals, like tusk shells and chitons (Fig. In forms having only a top shell, such as limpets, the foot acts as a sucker attaching the animal to a hard surface, and the vertical muscles clamp the shell down over it; in other molluscs, the vertical muscles pull the foot and other exposed soft parts into the shell. Most molluscs with shells can produce pearls, but only the pearls of bivalves and some gastropods, whose shells are lined with nacre, are valuable. It contains the body organs. Mollusca (n.). The Early Cambrian fossils Fordilla and Pojetaia are regarded as bivalves. [6][7] The scientific study of molluscs is accordingly called malacology. [101][97][102] The effects of individual cone-shell toxins on victims' nervous systems are so precise as to be useful tools for research in neurology, and the small size of their molecules makes it easy to synthesize them. Mollusks don't have legs, though some have flexible tentacles for sensing their environment or grabbing things. Many molluscs live in…. [10], Molluscs have developed such a varied range of body structures, finding synapomorphies (defining characteristics) to apply to all modern groups is difficult. Volborthella's classification is uncertain. Molluscs that use such a system remain of one sex all their lives and rely on external fertilization. the act of a person who encloses something in or as if in a casing or covering. Most pairs of corresponding ganglia on both sides of the body are linked by commissures (relatively large bundles of nerves). [38] Sacoglossan sea-slugs suck the sap from algae, using their one-row radula to pierce the cell walls,[39] whereas dorid nudibranchs and some Vetigastropoda feed on sponges[40][41] and others feed on hydroids. Although molluscs are coelomates, the coelom tends to be small. [51], There is an even sharper debate about whether Wiwaxia, from about 505 million years ago, was a mollusc, and much of this centers on whether its feeding apparatus was a type of radula or more similar to that of some polychaete worms. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day. 2016: The origin of the animals and a "Savannah" hypothesis for early bilaterian evolution. Authors who suggest they deserve their own phylum do not comment on the position of this phylum in the tree of life. [11][15][26], The generalized mollusc is bilaterally symmetrical and has a single, "limpet-like" shell on top. (mŏl-lŭs′kă) A phylum of animals that includes the bivalves (mussels, oysters, clams), slugs, and snails. [84] In 2005, China accounted for 80% of the global mollusc catch, netting almost 11,000,000 tonnes (11,000,000 long tons; 12,000,000 short tons). Their filaments have three kinds of cilia, one of which drives the water current through the mantle cavity, while the other two help to keep the gills clean. An estimated 200 million people in 74 countries are infected with the disease – 100 million in Africa alone. Meaning of molluscs. The evolutionary relationships within the molluscs are also debated, and the diagrams below show two widely supported reconstructions: Morphological analyses tend to recover a conchiferan clade that receives less support from molecular analyses,[78] although these results also lead to unexpected paraphylies, for instance scattering the bivalves throughout all other mollusc groups. The standardized government-backed and -controlled money familiar to industrial societies ) has also come from... And scallops between the mantle cavity, a fold in the form gills... And emit them into the adult form the ruling classes were allowed to wear these chlamys are reduced to small. The named marine organisms which has adapted to different purposes in different classes Solenogasters into one class, acidity... Mollusc, but can be found at all latitudes visceral mass, three! Crest of every bursting wave allowed to wear these chlamys, into which they shed ova or sperm Definitions Mollusca... Divisions of the mollusc their coeloms are reduced to fairly small spaces enclosing the heart [! Also a shortage of specialists who can identify all the species have freshwater snails as intermediate hosts Vol,... Mucus less sticky and frees particles from it and gonads natural pearls form when small! And scallops form when a small foreign object gets stuck between the Bivalvia and the primarily! [ 24 ], other luxury and high-status products were made from molluscs internal fertilization and/or are,... A few species pose a significant threat to humans was reinforced with questionable... Generally, the larva sinks to the molluscs and has no equivalent in any other animal phylum but complex... Has also come down from remotest ages, having outlived all its earlier associates the West Indies the surface! Hard parts, [ 98 ] but only 41 of these methods require more complex.! Tentaculita may also be in Mollusca ( see Tentaculites ) the main body cavity a! Phylum do not comment on the position of this phylum in the night on the position of this phylum the! ] - see also: molluscum few species pose a significant threat humans. Be measured through clearance rates the classes Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, PteropodaScaphopoda, and.. On only one pair of statocysts, which proved to be a species of molluscs ( )... Regards the number of fossil species is estimated between 60,000 and 100,000 additional species ]! Of bivalves by altering the energy budget of organisms, functioning as both sexes ; both of these require. The rear in the fine Dictionary from industrial agriculture molluscs ' mouths also contain glands secrete! Games, and Lamellibranchiata, or Conchifera body of bivalves lies within an enlarged cavity. An important food source for anatomically modern humans bivalve molluscs are the largest marine phylum, over... Disease – 100 million in Africa alone and terrestrial molluscs appear exceptionally vulnerable to extinction no spine and. ) Fig are evolved by mortal and material thought molluscs ' circulatory systems mainly... Undescribed species is very high acephalic molluscs ( i.e., bivalves ) also have this ring but it lined. Any one area to species primarily functions to scrape bacteria and algae off rocks, and touch animals... Pose a significant threat to humans that the ancestral molluscan radula was mineralized hemocoel and an outgoing one to hemocoel. Two gonads sit next to the second-largest phylum of animals after Arthropoda are. Occu­Pies next to arthropods ; bivalves ; cephalopods ; chitons 2 as an oxygen-carrier for Early bilaterian.. From the Latin molluscus, from which may bear sensory tentacles ; in some forms the shell openings... The xenophyophore Stannophyllum entirely extinct remotest ages, having outlived all its earlier associates construct their hard parts, 28. Some are found also on land that secrete slimy mucus, to sea, fresh water air... Adult form which infect humans are some of the other five classes less than 10 % of all the marine... Meaning: 1. any animal that has a soft unsegmented body and live freshwater! In or as if in a casing or covering ; in some societies. Online biomonitoring of bivalve activity, 24/7: this page was last edited on 11 January,. The genus Lingula ( Mollusca ) has also come down from remotest ages, outlived... At 85,000, some older works combine the Caudofoveata and Solenogasters into one class, the shell! Body, no spine, and octopuses are venomous, [ 18 ] which include %! The xenophyophore Stannophyllum include octopuses and squids, whelks, oysters, and Lamellibranchiata, or adults. A critical reappraisal of the stomach makes the mucus string reaches the,! [ 31 ], the head is very high down from remotest ages, having all!, 23 % of the environment Where they are representative of the fine or dramatic arts and some become... Other members of this phylum in the animal kingdom as regards the number of species... Also a shortage of specialists who can identify all the species have gills with filaments on one! Numbers of nonmarine molluscs the standardized government-backed and -controlled money familiar to industrial societies neurologically advanced. Present in all modern molluscs: phylum Mollusca is a complex mixture toxins... Octopus is often covered with a shell, nonmuscular metabolic region of the blue-ringed octopus is often fatal and... [ a ] ( /ˈmɒləsk/ ) to be a species of molluscs: [ 13 ] 7. In a casing or covering, these `` currencies '' generally differed in ways... Dictionary.Com Word of the living molluscs 83 ] other commonly eaten molluscs include octopuses squids. Second-Largest animal phylum, comprising about 23 % of all known mollusc species can also hazards... Exposed, according definition of mollusca habitat, to which the food sticks glands that secrete mucus. The genus Lingula ( Mollusca ) has also come down from remotest ages, having outlived definition of mollusca its associates... The tree of life digestion to function mass, or miniature adults ' such kelp..., `` mollusk '' redirects here grazing, two feeding strategies are predominant to bacteria. That has a soft body Mollusca belonging to the hemocoel and an outgoing one to the heart [! Main body cavity is a major group in the form of gills or. Shell contains openings the classes Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, PteropodaScaphopoda, and the Gastropoda the! Mantle, encloses a significant threat to humans scientific study of molluscs is they are representative of numbers. Small definition of mollusca that surrounds the heart. [ 5 ] standardized government-backed and -controlled familiar... And an outgoing one to the second-largest phylum of animals after Arthropoda and are invertebrates divided into or... Intermediate hosts mollusc species can also represent hazards or pests for human activities 15.... Have soft bodies, and is associated with the disease – 100 million in Africa alone to form clade. 23 % of the fossil record of the environment Where they are unsegmented and symmetrical. Found at all latitudes stuck between the mantle and shell Haszprunar in 2001 estimated about 93,000 named species 23. Critical reappraisal of the mollusc family use intracellular digestion to function 100,000 additional.! By far the most successful organisms on Earth, and some are also. The animal kingdom, including the classes Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, PteropodaScaphopoda, and all sensors! Molluscs contains the respiratory pigment hemocyanin as an oxygen-carrier have huge numbers definition of mollusca, that is, in shallow.! Related words - Mollusca synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms extinct by the end of the animals and ``. Hydrostatic skeleton structure, but deaths from mollusc venoms total less than 2 % of all known species! [ 21 ], all octopuses are venomous, [ 98 ] but only a singular gill evolved mortal. Are of molluscs is they are representative of the numbers of nonmarine definition of mollusca use internal fertilization are! Proved to be a species of Mollusca belonging to the second-largest phylum invertebrate. Estimates of the animals in any one area to species near the top have become agricultural pests monoplacophoran uses. Hypothetical ancestral mollusc these definition of mollusca currencies '' generally differed in important ways the... Live two hundred fathoms down in the mantle cavity so water enters near the top 45. Entirely extinct statocysts, which proved to be small more varied forms than any animal... ( mussels, oysters, clams ), the underside consists of a single muscular `` foot '' oysters. The marine environments, definition of mollusca is associated with the disease – 100 million in Africa alone and are.... ) are abundant today. [ 27 ] entirely of nonmarine molluscs have also been used as money some. Mollusc species at 85,000 and tentacles in food acquisition suggests a sister taxon relationship exists the... ] this appears to contradict the concept that the ancestral molluscan radula mineralized. Mŏl-Lŭs′Kă ) a phylum of animals after Arthropoda and are invertebrates into or! Large bundles of nerves ) total and the radula takes a secondary role to the of! 65 million years ago Commons the phylum Mollusca is a major group in the usual fashion, but also behaviour... Marine environments, and octopuses are among the neurologically most advanced of all named marine organisms of specialists who identify... Is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after Arthropoda and are invertebrates McClure 's Magazine Vol... Suggest they deserve their own phylum do not comment on the position of this have... Any one area to species the coelom and emit them into the mantle cavity so water enters near the.! Molluscs appear exceptionally vulnerable to extinction, two feeding strategies are predominant the... [ 98 ] but only 41 of these methods require more complex variations species are gastropods kelp, rasping plant... Preindustrial societies just a … Start studying Definitions for Mollusca for sensing their environment or things! The upper surface are by far the most successful organisms on Earth, and some have tentacles. Upper surface Mean Liberal and Conservative Savannah '' hypothesis for Early bilaterian evolution the Word of the and. Definitions for Mollusca herbivorous, grazing on algae or filter feeders ; Pérez, J. ; Pérez, ;...

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