The Division of Agronomy is one of the most important sections of the College of Agriculture, Pune. This Division was established in 1902 under the leadership of Prof. J.B.Knight (1902).

Since the establishment, the main aim of the Agronomy section is to provide instruction in Agronomy subject to the undergraduate students of this college. For a long, time in the past Agronomy was the only solitary subject which was taught in all the four years of undergraduates course curriculum of B.Sc. (Agri.). The Poona University syllabus of B.Sc. (Agri.) was modified in 1966 and some which to major changes in the teaching of Agronomy took place. Firstly, the teaching of vegetable crops excluding spices which was previously taught by this section was transferred to horticulture section. Secondly, the subject Farm Account was allotted to agriculture economics section. Since the academic year 2007-08 the syllabus of Agronomy subject for the undergraduate courses as recommended by IV Deans Committee is being implemented.

At present as per the decisions of IV Deans Committee report this section offers 14 courses with 22 credit load in agronomy subject to the undergraduates students of the college. In addition to this, this section also offers three courses with eight credit load to the B.Sc. (Hort.) students of the College of Horticulture, Pune. One course with two credits in Agro Meteorology discipline is also offered by this section to the B.Sc. (Agri.) and B. Sc. (Hort.) students.

The teaching of Postgraduates students has also become an important and regular activity of this section since 1916. Master degree course in Agriculture (M.Ag.) was started in the year, of 1916. But in earlier years, very few students took the advantage of this facility. The first research worker Shri. P. M. Gaaywal, got the M.Ag. degree in 1934 under the guidance of Prof. V. G. Gokhale. During 1934 to 1950 nobody worked for M.Ag. degree in this section. During the tenure of Dr. H. R. Arakeri and Dr. B. A. Chaugule (1950-58) eleven more students got the M.Ag. degree. Regular postgraduate course with papers and research work started in the year 1961. In all 50 students got the M. Ag. degree during the period of 1916 to 1967. After the establishment of Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth at Rahuri post graduate programme was shifted to University headquarters at Rahuri. However, from 1985 postgraduate degree programme in agronomy is again partly shifted at this college. Now every year 7-8 students are admitted for M.Sc. (Agri.) in Agronomy subject in this section.