Achievements

Technologies generated

The research experiments were conducted in AICRPM, Pune centre since 1983 on button mushroom, oyster mushroom, milky, Macrocybe, Shiitake mushrooms; germplasam collection and survey; post harvest management; survey and surveillance of insect pests and diseases of mushrooms were executed. The results of the same have been reported time to time in annual reports. The following technologies on different aspects of mushroom were developed at AICRP on Mushroom, Pune Centre.

  • Use of grain spawn @100 g per square meter of the bed area in order to increase the yields of Agaricus bisporus mushroom.

  • The short method of composting with wheat straw as a base material with strain P-1 and/or NCS-12 is proposed to be used in place of strain 310 for obtaining maximum yield of mushroom.

  • For preparation of good compost for button mushroom cultivation, following base materials is to be used in order of availability and cost effectiveness.

1. Soybean + wheat straw, 2. Wheat straw, 3. Soybean straw alone or in combination

  • The strain NCB-6 of Agaricus bitorquis can be commercially cultivated by using pasteurized wheat straw compost at ambient temperature in the range of 22 to 26oC.

  • For cultivation of Pleurotus sajor caju, cotton straw leaves and paddy straw are recommended as a substrate as per their availability. However, cotton stalks and leaves should be given first preference on the basis of cost benefit ratio.

  • A good quality and spicy mushroom pickles may be prepared successfully by using a variety of recipes developed. However, a traditional mix mushroom pickle would be accepted most preferentially. Likewise a good quality tomato mushroom sauce (50:50) could be manufactured on commercial scale as a nutritious source.

  • During the year 2004-05, six cultures viz., Tricholoma spp. (NRCM OE 301); Termitomyces spp. (NRCM OE 299); Panaeolus spp. (NRCM OE 303); Agaricus spp. (NRCM OE 300); Ganoderma spp. (NRCM OE 304) and Agaricus spp. (NRCM OE 302) were found true to type and are deposited in gene bank at DMR Solan.

  • The highest yield of button mushroom i.e. 1481 g /10 kg compost was obtained from wheat straw based compost followed by soybean straw based compost i.e. 1031 g /10 kg compost.

  • The hot water treatment to the substrate resulted into significantly highest yield of 720 g /kg dry substrate than the other two methods of pasteurization (viz., chemical and solar pasteurization).

  • Supplementation of wheat straw with 2% wheat bran + 2% rice bran was found to be significant in increasing yield of black ear mushroom.

  • The acceptable white colour of button mushroom was retained up to 48 hrs when packed in 100 guage PE bags without holes at both refrigerated and ambient temperatures. However, the acceptable white colour was retained up to 48 hrs only when packed in 100 guage PP bags with hole and stored at refrigerated condition. In both sets, performance of 100 guage PP and 100 guage PE were more or less comparable.

  • Monsoon / rainy season was found most suitable for all the species of Pleurotus.

  • Use of non-chemical method i.e. use of oil coated polythene sheet for control of flies in mushroom growing room was found to be most efficient.

  • During the year 2012-13, total 39 pure cultures of wild mushroom were deposited in the Gene Bank of Directorate of Mushroom Research, Chambaghat, Solan, of which 28 cultures obtained the DMR Accession Codes.

  • During the year 2013-14, total 42 pure cultures of wild mushroom were deposited in the Gene Bank of Directorate of Mushroom Research, Chambaghat, Solan, of which 18 cultures obtained the DMR Accession Codes.

  • During the year 2014-15, total 23 pure cultures of wild mushroom were deposited in the Gene Bank of Directorate of Mushroom Research, Chambaghat, Solan and 20 cultures obtained the DMR Accession Codes.

Recommendations

Following recommendations were made through AICRP on Mushroom in Annual workshop at National level.

  1. For chemical pasteurization of oyster mushroom substrate, the treatment of Carbendazim (50 WP) 7.5 g + formaldehyde (38-45 LR) 125 ml per 100 lit. of water for 18 hrs is recommended.

  2. For spawning in oyster mushroom 2% spawn on wet weight basis of substrate is recommended for layer method of spawning.

  3. For spawning in button mushroom 0.75% spawn on wet weight basis of compost is recommended for layer method of spawning.

  4. For spawning in Milky mushroom 4% spawn on wet weight basis of substrate is recommended for layer method of spawning.

  5. For higher yield of button mushroom, the use of coir pith + FYM (1:1) as casing material is recommended.

  6. The application of Veradix-2 spray @ 0.15% at pinning stage in button is recommended for higher yield.

Achievements in last 5 years (2012-17)

  1. During the year 2012-13 to 2016-17, total 162 pure cultures of wild mushroom were deposited in the Gene Bank of Directorate of Mushroom Research, Chambaghat, Solan for accession numbers, out of which 111 cultures obtained the DMR gene bank Accession Codes.

  2. Evaluation of wild edible Pleurotus spp. reported from Western Ghat of Maharashtra for yield and quality parameters was carried out and the wild edible pink coloured strain PN-14-41 of oyster mushroom, was found superior among all the wild strains and standard check (P. sajor-caju) for growth and yield parameters of mushroom in three consecutive trials and advocated for commercial cultivation in Maharashtra.

  3. The temperature and Trichoderma mould tolerant hybrid oyster mushroom strains are developed and under testing for commercial cultivation.

  4. Since 2012 onwards, 93 oyster mushroom and 9 button mushroom units were newly started in Maharashtra by taking the technical guidance from scientists of AICRPM, Pune Centre.

  5. Total 68 one day training programme on “Oyster and Milky Mushroom Cultivation Technology” were organized and 1782 participants were trained for mushroom cultivation technology.

Overall impact of research Centre

  1. All the recommendations and technologies developed are being adopted by the farmers for day to day cultivation in different mushroom farms in Maharashtra state.

  2. This centre has made tremendous efforts to popularize the mushroom farming in the state. As a result, locally known “Dhingri mushroom” is well popularized among the common people because of simple techniques of cultivation and low cost technology.

  3. More than 275 growers are engaged in the spawn production, oyster mushrooms cultivation, marketing, and processing till the date.

  4. The total button mushroom production in Maharashtra was 300 MT during 1992-93 and it was increased to 17970 MT in 2017-18.

  5. The number of button mushroom units in 1992 was only one, which increased up to 32 units in Maharashtra till 2017-2018.

  6. Increased awareness regarding mushroom among the farmers.